Metformin: The Best type 2 diabetes medication

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type 2 diabetes medication


The glycated haemoglobin (A1C) test is frequently used to determine type 2 diabetes. Your average blood sugar level over the previous two to three months is determined by this blood test. This is how the results are interpreted:

  • Below on 5.7% is normal.
  • 5.7% to 6.4% is considered as prediabetes.
  • 6.5% or higher indicates diabetes.

Random blood sugar test

Blood sugar values are expressed in Millimoles of sugar per litre (mmol/L) of blood or milligrammes of sugar per deciliter (mg/dL) .

Also Read : Top 10 Best treatment for diabetes type 1 and type 2

Fasting blood sugar test

This is how the results are interpreted After fasting for the previous night.

  • Less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) = normal.
  • 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) = prediabetes.
  • 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher = diabetes

Oral glucose tolerance test

 This test is used during pregnancy. You’ll have to skip breakfast the next day and drink a sweet beverage in the doctor’s office. After the two hours, blood sugar levels are checked at regular intervals. This is how the results are interpreted:

  • Less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) = normal.
  • 140 to 199 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L and 11.0 mmol/L) = prediabetes.
  • 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher = diabetes.


All persons aged 35 and older, as well as the following groups, should undergo routine testing for type 2 diabetes with diagnostic tests:

  • People younger than 35 who are overweight may have diabetes.
  • Women may have gestational diabetes.
  • People who have already been diagnosed with prediabetes
  • Children who are overweight and who have a family history of type 2 diabetes or other risk factors


Management of type 2 diabetes includes:

  • Healthy eating
  • Weight loss
  • Regular exercise
  • Blood sugar monitoring
  • Possibly, diabetes medication or insulin therapy

Healthy eating

  • A regular schedule for hralthy meals
  • Smaller size bite
  • More high-fiber foods, like fruits, green vegetables and whole grains
  • Fewer refined grains, like starchy vegetables and sweets
  • Modest servings of low-fat dairy, like low-fat meats and fish
  • Healthy cooking oils, like olive oil or canola oil
  • Fewer calories

Physical activity

Exercise is crucial for loosing weights or keeping a healthy body. It also helps in controlling blood sugar levels.

Aerobic exercise

Aerobic exercise such as walking, swimming, biking or running. Adults should aim for 30 minutes or more. Children should have 60 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise daily.

Resistance exercise

Resistance exercise increases your strength, balance and ability to perform activities of daily life. It includes weightlifting, yoga and calisthenics.

Weight loss

Weight loss results in better control of blood sugar levels. The more weight you lose, the greater the benefit to your health and disease management.

Monitoring your blood sugar

You should keep a record of your measurements to share with your health care team.

Diabetes medications

If you can’t maintain your blood sugar level with diet and exercise, doctor can prescribe diabetes medications that help to lower insulin levels. Drug treatments for type 2 diabetes include the following medications.


Metformin (Fortamet, Glumetza, others) is generally the first medication prescribed for type 2 diabetes by the WHO doctors.

Some possible side effects, which may seen over time are:

  • Nausea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Bloating
  • Diarrhea


Sulfonylureas help your body secrete more insulin. Possible side effects include:

  • Low blood sugar
  • Weight gain


It stimulate the pancreas to secrete more insulin. Possible side effects include:

  • Low blood sugar
  • Weight gain


It make the body’s tissues more sensitive to insulin. Possible side effects include:

  • Risk of congestive heart failure
  • Risk of bladder cancer (pioglitazone)
  • Risk of bone fractures
  • High cholesterol (rosiglitazone)
  • Weight gain

DPP-4 inhibitors

It help reduce blood sugar levels. Possible side effects include:

  • Risk of pancreatitis
  • Joint pain

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